Referencias Bibliográficas

Fisiopatología e investigación básica

  Autor: Jose Viña y Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera
Nuria Garatachea & Alejandro Lucía, (2011). Genes and the ageing muscle: a review on genetic
association studies.

Western populations are living longer. Ageing decline in muscle mass and strength (i.e.
sarcopenia) is becoming a growing public health problem, as it contributes to the decreased capacity
for independent living. It is thus important to determine those genetic factors that interact with ageing and thus modulate functional capacity and skeletal muscle phenotypes in older people. It would be also clinically relevant to identify ‘unfavourable’ genotypes associated with accelerated sarcopenia. In this
review, we summarized published information on the potential associations between some genetic polymorphisms andmuscle phenotypes in older people.Aspecial emphasis was placed on those candidate polymorphisms that have beenmore extensively studied, i.e. angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D, α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X, and myostatin (MSTN) K153R, among others. Although previous heritability studies have indicated that there is an important genetic contribution to individual variability in muscle phenotypes among old people, published data on specific gene variants are controversial. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism could influence muscle function in old women, yet there is controversy with regards to which allele (R or X) might play a ‘favourable’ role. Though more research is needed, up-to-date MSTN genotype is possibly the strongest candidate to explain variance among muscle phenotypes in the elderly. Future studies should take into account the association between muscle phenotypes in this population and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions.
Todd M. Manini, and Brian C. Clark, (2012). Dynapenia and Aging: An Update.

In 2008, we published an article arguing that the age-related loss of muscle strength is only partially explained by the reduction in muscle mass and that other physiologic factors explain muscle weakness in older adults (Clark BC, Manini TM. Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:829–834). Accordingly, we proposed that these events (strength and mass loss) be defined independently, leaving the term “sarcopenia” to be used in its original context to describe the age-related loss of muscle mass. We subsequently coined the term “dynapenia” to describe the age-related loss of muscle strength and power. This article will give an update on both the biological and clinical literature on dynapenia—
serving to best synthesize this translational topic. Additionally, we propose a working decision algorithm for defining dynapenia. This algorithm is specific to screening for and defining dynapenia using age, presence or absence of risk factors, a grip strength screening, and if warranted a test for knee extension strength. A definition for a single risk factor such as dynapenia will provide information in building a risk profile for the complex etiology of physical disability. As such, this approach mimics the development of risk profiles for cardiovascular disease that include such factors as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, etc. Because of a lack of data, the working decision algorithm remains
to be fully developed and evaluated. However, these efforts are expected to provide a specific understanding of the role that dynapenia plays in the loss of physical function and increased risk for disability among older adult
Francesco Landi, Rosa Liperoti,Domenico Fusco, Simona Mastropaolo, Davide Quattrociocchi,Anna Proia, Andrea Russo,Roberto Bernabei,and Graziano Onder, (2012).Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sarcopenia Among Nursing Home Older Residents.

Sarcopenia has been indicated as a reliable marker of frailty and poor prognosis among the oldest individuals. At present, there are no data on sarcopenia in nursing home population. We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with functional and clinical status in a population of elderly persons aged 70 years and older living in nursing homes.
Christy S. Carter,Emanuele Marzetti, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh,Todd Manini, Thomas C. Foster, Leanne Groban,Philip J. Scarpace, and Drake Morgan, (2012).Usefulness of Preclinical Models for Assessing the Efficacy of Late-Life Interventions for Sarcopenia.

Caloric restriction and physical exercise have proven beneficial against age-associated changes in body composition and declining physical performance; however, little is known regarding what benefit these interventions might have when initiated late in life. The study of mimetics of diet and exercise and the combination thereof may provide additional treatments
for a vulnerable elderly population; however, how and when to initiate such interventions requires consideration in developing the most safe and efficacious treatment strategies. In this review, we focus on preclinical late-life intervention studies, which assess the relationship between physical function, sarcopenia, and body composition. We provide a conceptual
framework for the ever-changing definition of sarcopenia and a rationale for the use of an appropriate rodent model of this condition. We finish by providing our perspective regarding the implications of this body of work and future areas of research that may also contribute to the ultimate goal of extending healthspan.
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